Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Voor alle onderwerpen die gaan over andere door teken overdraagbare infecties. Over symptomen, diagnose, tests en behandeling hiervan. Onderwerpen over andere infecties die naast de Lyme-Borreliose kunnen optreden, zijn hier ook welkom.
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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
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Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Do 06 Jun 2019, 14:55

Chlamydia Persistence: A Survival Strategy to Evade Antimicrobial Effects in-vitro and in-vivo

The Chlamydiaceae comprise a group of highly adapted bacterial pathogens sharing a unique intracellular lifestyle. Three Chlamydia species are pathogenic to humans: Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia psittaci. C. trachomatis is the leading bacterial cause of sexually-transmitted infections and infectious blindness worldwide. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired atypical pneumonia. C. psittaci primarily affects psittacine birds and can be transmitted to humans causing psittacosis, a potentially fatal form of pneumonia. As opposed to other bacterial pathogens, the spread of clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance genes does not seem to be a major problem for the treatment of Chlamydia infections. However, when exposed to stressing conditions, like those arising from exposure to antimicrobial stimuli, these bacteria undergo a temporary interruption in their replication cycle and enter a viable but non-cultivable state known as persistence. When the stressing conditions are removed, Chlamydia resumes replication and generation of infectious particles. This review gives an overview of the different survival strategies used by Chlamydia to evade the deleterious effects of penicillin and IFNγ, with a focus on the different models used to study Chlamydia persistence, their contribution to elucidating the molecular basis of this complex phenomenon and their potential implications for studies in animal models of infection.

Bron: Frontiersin (Frontiers in Microbiology Infectious Diseases ), lees meer
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.

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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
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Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Zo 01 Sep 2019, 17:31

1997
Bias in the evaluation of DNA-amplification tests for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis.

Hadgu A1.
Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to show that the sensitivity and specificity estimates obtained by 'discrepant analysis' are biased. Discrepant analysis is a widely used technique that attempts to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity in the presence of an imperfect gold standard. Many researchers have applied this technique to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of DNA-amplification tests for Chlamydia trachomatis such as the plasmid based ligase chain reaction (LCR) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Moreover, the June 1993 package insert of the PCR AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis test contains estimates of sensitivity and specificity based on 'discrepant analysis'. Even if one employs a perfect test to resolve the discrepant results, discrepant analysis estimates of test sensitivity and specificity remain biased. Thus, one should not adopt this technique to evaluate the performance of a diagnostic test.

Bron: NCBI, lees meer

Issues in Chlamydia trachomatis Testing by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test

Bron: https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/193/9/1335/1014619
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.

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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
Contact:

Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Wo 04 Sep 2019, 23:18

Chlamydia trachomatis samples testing falsely negative in the Aptima Combo 2 test in Finland, 2019

Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Kati Hokynar, [...], and Mirja Puolakkainen
Without this known catch-up diagnostics the AC2-false negative samples would comprise 10% (10/98) of all chlamydia positives during those three weeks.


Bron: NCBI, lees meer

Ik vroeg mij af hoe zeldzaam Chlamydia Trachomatis is, zie onderstaande.
International Conference on Chlamydial and Mycoplasma Human Infections

The fact that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for 82–92 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital tract infections each year, and that this trend in Europe continues to rise alarmingly, was reported by Roberto Cevenini (Microbiology, University of Bologna, Italy). Sexually transmitted infections caused by C. trachomatis are considered the ‘silent disease’ because infection rarely produces symptoms, especially in women. Left untreated, Chlamydia can trigger pelvic inflammation leading to chronic disease and infertility. C. trachomatis is also strongly implicated in the transmission of HIV and increases the probability of introducing high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes that induce cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. For these reasons, public health authorities in many developed countries have launched chlamydia control programs, even if in some trials vaccination predisposed to more severe disease.


Bron: futuremedicine.com, lees meer
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.

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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
Contact:

Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Do 05 Sep 2019, 10:41

Multiple Drug-Resistant Chlamydia trachomatis Associated with Clinical Treatment Failure

01 April 2000
Abstract

In vitro susceptibility testing and genotyping were done on urogenital isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis from 3 patients, 2 of whom showed evidence of clinical treatment failure with azithromycin and one of whom was the wife of a patient. All 3 isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance to doxycycline, azithromycin, and ofloxacin at concentrations >4.0 μg/mL. Recurrent disease due to relapsing infection with the same resistant isolate was documented on the basis of identical genotypes of both organisms. This first report of clinically significant multidrug-resistant C. trachomatis causing relapsing or persistent infection may portend an emerging problem to clinicians and public health officials.


Bron: Oxfordacademic, lees meer
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.

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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
Contact:

Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Vr 01 Nov 2019, 02:46

The twin epidemics: Prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection and its associated factors in Ethiopia; A systematic review and meta-analysis

'Moreover, HIV and TB work together to suppress the immunity of the patients and, thereby, shorten the lifespan if there is no early treatment [4].'


Bron: NCBI, lees meer
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.

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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
Contact:

Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Zo 10 Nov 2019, 23:12

Toll-like receptors in Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation

TLRs AND BORRELIA BURGDORFERI

The severity of clinical symptoms associated with bacterial diseases may vary according to the type and abundance of the infectious agent, the affected tissue, and co-existing illnesses.
However, similar host responses have also been observed. For example, several clinical and immunological similarities can be seen during infection with Treponema and Borrelia spp., and between Gramnegative and Gram-positive sepsis [42]. Hence, it can be speculated that the pathophysiological similarities observed with diverse infections are caused by activation of analogous signalling pathways in response to bacterial exposure.

Bron: SCIENCEDIRECT, lees meer

Toll-like Receptors (TLR's) op Wikipedia, lees meer

Borrelia and Chlamydia Can Form Mixed Biofilms in Infected Human Skin Tissues

E. Sapi, K. Gupta, [...], and B. Zelger
Because multiple co-infections are common in Lyme disease, the main questions of this study were whether BL tissues contained other pathogenic species and/or whether there is any co-existence with Borrelia biofilms. Recent reports suggested Chlamydia-like organisms in ticks and Borrelia-infected human skin tissues; therefore, Chlamydia-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were performed in Borrelia-positive BL tissues. Analyses of the sequence of the positive PCR bands revealed that Chlamydia spp. DNAs are indeed present in these tissues, and their sequences have the best identity match to Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.
Fluorescent immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods demonstrated the presence of Chlamydia antigen and DNA in 84% of Borrelia biofilms. Confocal microscopy revealed that Chlamydia locates in the center of Borrelia biofilms, and together, they form a well-organized mixed pathogenic structure.

Bron: NCBI, lees meer

Chronic Chlamydia and Mycoplasma?, zie onderstaande bijlage :idea:

ILADS_BOSTON_2017-Dr-Lambert (2).pdf
Chronic Lyme and Co-Infections
including Anaplasma : the Irish
Experience
(2.43 MiB) 8 keer gedownload
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.

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VerlorengezondheidM
Berichten: 2006
Lid geworden op: Za 19 Sep 2015, 23:59
Locatie: Tilburg
Contact:

Re: Chlamydia Trachomatis (+ bloedtest beperkingen??)

Berichtdoor VerlorengezondheidM » Di 12 Nov 2019, 23:43

Chlamydia antibody testing in screening for tubal factor subfertility: the significance of IgG antibody decline over time

Discussion

Chlamydia antibody testing has been introduced as a simple and inexpensive screening test for tubal factor subfertility. However, little attention has been paid to its limitations. Although it is assumed that Chlamydia infections give rise to persistent IgG antibody formation, the exact course of titres over time is still poorly understood. The four studies published to date on the course of Chlamydia IgG antibody titres together describe a significant decline of titres of 36.6% in 153 patients tested, but describe seroconversion from positive to negative as a rare occurrence. However, these studies have all concerned patients recently treated for acute pelvic inflammatory disease only. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate the course of Chlamydia IgG antibody levels in asymptomatic subfertility patients.


Bron: Oxfordacademic, lees meer
Lyme Test Negative?
It Still May Be Lyme Disease!

Na 19 jaar onbehandeld rondlopen met een klinisch ziektebeeld: Chronische Lyme, Q-koorts, Bartonella, Babesia, Anaplasma, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Yersinia, Coxsackie A16+ B, HHV-6.


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