a reaction to endotoxin-like products released by the death of harmful microorganisms within the body during antibiotic treatment. Efficacious antimicrobial therapy results in lysis (destruction) of bacterial cell membranes, and in the consequent release into the bloodstream of bacterial toxins, resulting in a systemic inflammatory response.
It resembles bacterial sepsis and can occur after initiation of antibacterials, such as mild silver protein, penicillin or tetracycline, for the treatment of louse-borne relapsing fever (80–90% of patients) and in tick-borne relapsing fever (30–40%). It usually manifests within a few hours of the first dose of antibiotic as fever, chills, rigor, hypotension, headache, tachycardia, hyperventilation, vasodilation with flushing, myalgia (muscle pain), exacerbation of skin lesions and anxiety. The intensity of the reaction indicates the severity of inflammation. Reaction commonly occurs within two hours of drug administration, but is usually self-limiting. It is observed in 50% of patients with primary syphilis and about 90% of patients with secondary syphilis.
The Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction is traditionally associated with antimicrobial treatment of syphilis. The reaction is also seen in the other diseases caused by spirochetes: Lyme disease, relapsing fever, and leptospirosis. There have been case reports of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction accompanying treatment of other infections, including Q fever, bartonellosis, brucellosis, trichinellosis, and African trypanosomiasis
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarisch%E ... r_reaction